GREAT THREAT POSED BY EUROPEAN STARLING IN NATIVE SPECIES
The descriptions of S. vulgaris include; medium sized, black songbird with short, triangular wings with spotted feathers and short tail. Breeding adults and no-breeding adults are differentiated by feathers. The feathers of a breeding adult are thin pointed with yellow bill and black in colour whereas the non-breeding has a black beak and light spots .
This alien species has the ability of growing very fast because it is a habitat generalist, it has the ability to utilize a wide variety of habitat types, nest sites and food sources. The fact that it co-exist with humans allows it to become established in agricultural fields, cities, sewage treatment and garbage dumps. 
They have a negative impact as they carry diseases like blastomycosis, beef measles and histoplasmosis which are of higher risk to human beings. .
Farmers are also experiencing huge problem caused by S. vulgaris as it damage crops, berries and grapes. They also transmit diseases to domestic animals by contaminating water and food sources through live storks.
The overabundance of starlings causes a lack of avian diversity, S. vulgaris drive-off native species like bluebirds (Siglia spp), Purple martin (Progne subis) and Tree swallows (Ridoprone bicolor). After a century of their introduction they contribute in the decline of the above listed species. They have observed taking over the nests of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) .
They pose enough threat to songbird in a way that it is now allowed to kill starling in U.S and Canada and sometimes a bounty is given off to killers. They are not protected by American wild life Conservation laws which make the killing issue not surprising. In other cities their nests are destroyed by human intervention where they intentionally set up the nest boxes in backyards and wooded areas, some also allow Peragrine falcon to build up their nests so that they can help with the control of European starling, as Peragrine falcon are strong eaters of starlings .
Economic concern was found in airport at runaways as European starling causes aircraft disasters by clogging up engines causing a shut down of the plane.
One of the Economic benefits posed by European starling in agriculture is the regulation of the number of pests eating the crops. They also serve as food source for some cultures along the Mediterranean Sea .
The invasion of European starling is not environmental friendly, it is true that they do assist farmer by controlling pests but the problem still lies immediately as they finish the pests because they become pests themselves and start eating the crops. They also pose high health risk diseases to both humans and animals which concludes European starling as a higher risk invasive species that needs to be removed fast.
1. Matthews, S. and Brandt, K. 2006. South American Invaded: the growing danger of invasive alien species. [Internet]. 23 January 2007; 08:57 UTC [Cited 23 Jan 2007]. Available From:
2. Peterson, R. T. 1947. A field guide to the birds. [Internet]. 23 January 2007; 10:17 UTC [Cited 23 Jan 2007]. Available From:
3. Wikipedia contributors. Peregrine Falcon [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2007 Jan 22, 07:02 UTC [cited 2007 Jan 24]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peregrine_Falcon&oldid=102387030.
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