Invasion Biology

Wednesday, January 24, 2007


There are many alien species in our county that and some people were not aware that they are planting invasive alien plants that can poison natural species. Lantana camara is a shrub found in the bush and is native at central and south part of America (1). Lantana camara preferred to grow in fertile soils, where there is enough water and it can survive drought season. The height of Lantana camara is 1.8 metres tall. Lantana camara has opposite leaves that are 5 to 12 centimetres long and the wide ranges from 3 to 5 centimetres. The leaves of Lantana camara also have rounded teeth. The leaves of Lantana camara have sweet smelling and hairs. The stem and leaves of Lantana camara are covered by hairs (2).

The fruits of Lantana camara are greenish-blue to black in colour and they are fresh. Lantana camara has vigour (poison) that kills Herbivores animals (rabbits, cattle, and sheep) feed on its leaves. The vigour can also cause sores at the eyes, mouth, and noise of herbivores animals that feed on its leaves (3).

The research about the invasive alien species is done and the result indicated that South Africa is evaded by over 9000 species (4). The researchers also found the 198 of alien species are invaders species and they caused an ecological threat to native species (1). According to the Eden wildy, about 576 million meters square (m2) alien species invade and replace the native plants in KwaZulu-Natal per year (4). This is too bad because the area will end up dominated by alien species.

Lantana camara is regarded as a major problem and it is not easy to be controlled. Agricultural and natural lands are the most areas that are invaded by Lantana camara. Lantana camara is also a poison to the crops (coffee and bananas). Human, birds and animals have been contributed on speding the weeds accidentaly in KwaZulu Natal. Some people planted Lantana camara at their fence rows not knowing that they are planting a invasive plants. Lantana can cause the death to the native species and people must stay away from them.

Many solutions can be done to control or reduce spreading of alien invasive species in our home and county as a whole. The programme of working for water must organise an environmental awareness campaign to communities. It will help the people who do not know about alien invasive species. Let the community know the danger of the alien invasive species. Landowners must check their land every time. People must carefully clean their cloths after visiting the bush. Medias ( radios, television, and newspapers) can be used to teach people about alien invader plants. Hands can be use to pull the invasive alien species. One can cut down the stem of alien species and apply or spray herbicides on the stem to kill invasive alien species.


1. Eden Wildy. Lantana camara. Alien Invaded Plants.[ Online]. 2006 April 23. [Cited 2007 January 22]. Accessed on:

2. Anonymous. Lantana camara. Floridata. [ Online]. 2006. [cited 2006 January 23]. Accessed on:

3. Anonymous. African Invaded:Lantana camara. The Global Invasive Species Progamme. [ Online]. 2003. [ Cited 2007 January 22]. Accessed on:

4. Eden Wildy. Lantana camara. Alien Invaded Plants.[ Online]. 2006 April 23. [Cited 2007 January 22]. Accessed on:

Lizzy Maluleke
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  • Hi Lizzy!

    A few things..

    First off, be careful about grammar and little details (soecies names should always be italicised, for example).

    You mention in your title that this species has invaded dozens of countries, but you never mention this again. You also don't mention how and when it came to be introduced into South Africa.

    Your last paragraph deals with general ways to deal with invasive species. What measures are being taken to handle the spread of Lantana camara in particular?

    Similarly, you mention the rate and extent of alien invasion in South Africa, but not how much L. camara contributes to this.

    Basically, you should choose whether your focus is alien invasives in SA in general, or by this species in particular.

    By Blogger NcK, at January 24, 2007 2:59 PM  

  • Hie Masingita.

    Becareful of yor gramma and try to use APA stayle of referencing
    Bespecific on which alien invasives you want to focus on.

    By Blogger muravha vhutali, at May 22, 2008 10:03 AM  

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